okʷ- , (*heĝʷh- )

okʷ- , (*heĝʷh- )
    okʷ- , (*heĝʷh- )
    English meaning: to see; eye
    Deutsche Übersetzung: ‘sehen”
    Note: besides ok-, see there
    Note: Root okʷ- : to see; eye derived from Root deik-̂ : to show” : Root dek-̂ 1 : “to take, *offer a sacrifice, observe a custom” [common Illyr.-Balt d- > zero phonetic mutation]. The drop of initial d- in Proto-Aryan languages caused the birth of old laryngeal ḫ-. One of the oldest cognates is Gk. δοκεύω “ to see, discern, perceive, observe; to think, suppose, imagine, expect “, then Marathi dola (*dokula) “eye”.
    Material: Aryan out of the compounds only forms of stem *okʷÞ- (whereupon partly the iand n-stem is layered): O.Ind. ákṣi n. “eye” (this i-stem ved. only nom. acc. sg. and in compounds, akṣi-pát “a little, a bit”, after ved. also in bh-case and in loc. pl.), gen. sg. akṣ-ṇ-áḥ etc., nom. Du. akṣī́ = Av. aši “ (both) eyes “ common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > -kṣ- : Avestan -ĝʷh- > -xš-, -š- phonetic mutation (compare *okʷī ds. in Lith. akì, O.Bulg. oči and as base from Arm. ač̣ -k” and Gk. ὄσσε), formation of conservative stem *akṣ-; this stem akṣ- also in ved. an-ák “blind”; Av. aši for *axšī after uši “ears”, compare Av. aiwy-üxšayeinti “ they supervise “, aiwyüxštar- ‘supervisor, custodian, keeper”; redupl. O.Ind. ī́kṣatē “ sees “ (IE *īkʷ- from *i-okʷ-); akṣá- m. “dice, cube”, i.e. “ provide with eyes “;kṣaṇa- m. n. “instant, eye blink” (seems grown from a loc. *[a]kṣán); is not overgrown the Þ-stem in the darkened compounds O.Ind. prátīka- “ turned, opposite “, n. “face (with the eyes and mouth)” (: πρόσ-ωπον), ánīka- n. “ the turned, front “, Av. ainīka- m. “face (with the eyes and mouth)” (*proti, *eni + okʷ-; compare Slav. nicь under *ni- “low, mean”), ghr̥tǘcī f. “ greasy (looking); sacrificial spoon “, śvitīcī́ f. “gleaming”; Arm. (with expressive gemination) akn, gen. akan “eye, aperture, hole” (n-stem), nom. pl. ač̣ -k” pluralized from dem nom. Du. *okʷi; Gk. (*oksi) ὄσσε nom. Du. “Augen” common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -ss- phonetic mutation (*okʷi̯ e for *okʷī), Att. *ὄττε, whereof τριοττίς “ necklace with three glass eyes “; ὄσσομαι ‘see, observe (spiritually), foresee, predict”, Att. ὀττεύομαι “foresee, predict, dread”; common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -ss-: -tt- phonetic mutation ὄψομαι “ I will see “, common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷh- > -phs- phonetic mutation ὄπωπα “have seen”; ὀπῑπεύω “ gawk at, look after “, παρθενοπί̄πης “ overseer of girls “ with redupliz. root ὀπ (ι + οπ > ῑπ-); ὄμμα “eye” (*ὄπ-μn̥), common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷ- > -p- phonetic mutation ὀφθ-αλ-μός “eye” (*okʷÞh- with expressive Aspirata?); common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷ- > -ph-, -f- phonetic mutation without Aspirata böot. ὄκταλλος; with (after ὀπός etc.) analogical π; common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Anatolian – Tocharian – Greek -ĝʷh- > -kt- phonetic mutation see Root ĝhðem-, ĝhðom-, gen.- ablative ĝh(ð)m-és : “earth” lak. ὀπτίλος, epidaur. ὀπτίλλος; similarly behaves ὄκκον ὀφθαλμόν to Lesb. ὄππατα “ὄμματα” (probably with expressive gemination); ὀπή “ opening, aperture “ (ἐνόπαι f. pl. “ earrings “ under likewise, πολυ-ωπός “ nets with a lot of openings or meshes “); common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷ- > -p- phonetic mutation lengthened grade ὤψ “face”; πρόσωπον “face (with the eyes and mouth)”, μέτωπον “forehead”, Κύκλ-ωψ, βο-ῶπις under likewise; μύ-ωψ “ shortsighted “; besides αἶθ-οψ under likewise with abbreviation (comparable Lat. atr-ōx, fer-ōx); common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷh- > -phs- phonetic mutation perhaps Gk. ὄπις “ the vengeance or visitation, aWestruck fear; punishment, retribution “, eig. “ investigation, inquiry “?; common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷ- > -p- phonetic mutation ἴψαο “you have reprimanded, have punished, pressed hard, oppressed “, common O.Ind. - ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷh- > -phs- phonetic mutation ἐν-ιπή “ rebuking, reproving appellation “, common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷ- > -pphonetic mutation ἐνί̄σσω (changed ἐνί̄πτω), Aor. ἠνί̄παπον and ἐνένῑπον “rebuke, reproach, reprove, punish, avenge, scold “ (IE *īkʷ- from redupl. *i-okʷ, compare O.Ind. ī́kṣatē); common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Gk. -ĝʷh- > -kʷ- > -p- phonetic mutation Alb. sũ “eye”;
    Note: [conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (Alb. phonetic trait)], hence Alb. geg sũni “eye” : Old Irish (*sūli-) sūil “ eye “ : Root sǘ u̯ el-, süu̯ ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- : ‘sun”. Finally zero grade Alb. geg sũni “eye” : Old Irish (*sūli-) sūil “ eye “ : Lat. oculus “eye” : Lith. akūlas “ attentive “. Hitt. šakuu̯ a- n. pl. “eyes”, šakuu̯ üi- ‘see” it seems that Root okʷ- : “to see; eye” derived from Root sekʷ-2 : “to see, show; to speak”. Lat. oculus “eye” (ōkʷelo-s); atr-ōx “ grisly” (to üter, above S. 69), fer-ōx “wild” (to Lat. ferus, above S. 493), etc. (: Gk. μύ-ωψ “ shortsighted “, etc.); O.Ir. enech, M.Welsh enep “face, face (with the eyes and mouth)”, M.Bret. enep ds. and preposition “against”, and Welsh wyneb “face (with the eyes and mouth)”, O.Welsh leteinepp “halbe Seite” are unclear; common O.Ind. -ĝʷh- > kṣ- : Celtic -ĝʷ > -b : -kʷ > -p phonetic mutation in Gmc. finden wir besides dem stem *aʒw- (*ókʷ-, O.H.G. ac-siuni f. ‘species”, auc-siuno “evidenter”) : *awi- (*okʷí -) in O.H.G. awi-zoraht “augenscheinlich”, O.E. ēawis (*ēaw-wis) “apparent, manifest, obvious”, ēawan ‘show, offenbaren”, O.Fris. üwia, auwia ds. (*awjan), M.H.G. z-ounen, M.Du. t-ōnen ‘show” (with abbreviated prefix); besides Gmc. *aun- (*okʷén-); through Ausgleich and influence of *ausō “ear” entstand ein stem *auʒan-: krimGoth. pl. oeghene (oe = ö), then Goth. augō, O.Ice. auga, O.H.G. ouga, O.E. ēage n. “eye”; stem *augja- in Goth. and-augi n. “face (with the eyes and mouth)”, O.E. and-ēages, amd. andouge “angesichts”, O.Ice. -eygr, O.H.G. -ougi, O.E. -ēaged “-äugig”; maybe Alb.Gheg (aug-) agu “dawn, sunshine, dark”, agull “blindness” Lith. akìs “eye”, akì (= O.Bulg. oči) “die beiden Augen”, Ltv. acs “eye”, O.Pruss. ackis nom. pl. “Augen”, O.Bulg. oko (Russ. óko), gen. očese, Du. oči “eye”; Lith. akūlas “ attentive “, Pol. obaczyć (lengthened grade) ‘see, bemerken, behold “, from which durcb Suffixverkennung (ob : o): baczyć “look out, aufpassen, wahrnehmen, see”; of n-stem Serb.-Church Slavic okno “window”; compare Eng. (O.Ice.Lw.) wind-ow ds., eig. “Windauge”; affiliation from Lith. ükas “Wuhne, hole in Eise”, Ltv. aka “gegrabener stream, brook”, Russ. river name Oká (different above S. 23), Lith. ekete ̃ (akete ̃, akytė) “in das ice gehauenes hole zumWasserschöpfen, Wuhne”, Ltv. akate “with Wasser gefũllte pit, pothole in morass” probably: “Wasserauge”, compare “Meeraugen” as Bezeichnung the Tatraseen; Toch. A ak, Du. aśäṃ, В ek, Du. eśane n. “eye”; A ak-mal “face” (“eye + nose”); compare W.Schulze Kl. Schr. 248. Maybe Sumerian ig[okʷ- , (*heĝʷh- )]2i: noun, eye(s); face; front. verb, to see prep., before, in front of
    References: WP. I 169 ff., WH. II 200 ff., Benveniste Origines 1, 48, Schwyzer Gk. 1, 299, Petersson Heterokl. 121.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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